Supports skin, hair & joint flexibility. Complete Omega-3.6.9 combines a perfect blend of Omega-3s (EPA and DHA) from fish and Omega-6s (GLA) from borage oil to support healthy skin, hair, joint flexibility, and normal fat metabolism. Also supports a healthy heart, mood, aids in PMS and the GLA aids in the reduction of the toxic effect of alcohol. Complete Omega-3.6.9 is an ideal supplement to ensure adequate intake of essential fatty acids from both fish and plant source.
|Directions for use:||2 softgels daily, with food, or as directed by your health care professional or pharmacist.|
|Caution:||Consult with your physician before using this product if you are pregnant, breastfeeding, diabetic, allergic to iodine, using blood thinners, or anticipate surgery.|
- Related Products (2)
Serving Size: 2 Soft Gels. Servings per container: 30/60. Amount Per Serving: Calories 18 (Calories from Fat 18), Total Fat 2.0g 3%* (Saturated Fat 0.4g 2%*, Trans Fat 0g **, Vitamin E (d-alpha tocopherol) 30 I.U. 100%*, Omega-3s 565mg*** 31%* (EPA (Eicosapentaenoic Acid) 270mg*** 15%*, DHA (Docosahexaenoic Acid) 180mg*** 10%*, Other Omega-3s 115mg*** 6%*), Omega-6s 224mg*** 12%* (GLA (Gamma Linolenic Acid) 66mg*** 4%*), Omega-9s 244mg*** 13%*, (OA (Oleic Acid) 160mg*** 9%*). Ingredients: Purified deep sea fish oil (from anchovies and sardines), soft gel capsule (gelatin, water, glycerin, natural lemon oil), borage oil, natural lemon oil, d-alpha tocopherol, rosemary extract. * Percent Daily Values are based on a 2,000 calorie diet. ** Daily Value not established. *** Natural Triglycerides. Less than 5mg of Cholesterol per serving.
|Storage:||Keep container tightly closed in a cool, dry and dark place.|
|Caution:||Consult with your physician before using this product if you are pregnant, breastfeeding, diabetic, allergic to iodine, using blood thinners, or anticipate surgery. Do not exceed recommended daily intake, unless directed by a healthcare practitioner. Individuals taking any prescription medications or who are under medical supervision should consult a doctor before taking any supplements. Keep out of reach of children.|
|Note:||Food supplements should not be used as a substitute for a varied balanced diet. All information is for reference purposes only. Statements regarding dietary supplements are not intended to diagnose, treat, cure or prevent any disease or health condition.|
Omega-3 Fatty Acids
Deficiency Linked to The Most Common Diseases of Our Time
By Nieske Zabriskie, ND
Omega-3 fatty acids are one of the most widely researched natural compounds and one of the most important tools that we have to fight inflammation and enhance immune response. Yet, most Americans are eating diets that are woefully deficient in omega-3s and overly high in pro-inflammatory omega-6 fatty acids.
Fish oil and krill oil, two of the best sources of omega-3 fatty acids, provide the long-chain omega-3 fatty acids eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), which compete with the omega-6 fatty acid arachidonic acid in inflammatory pathways. Arachidonic acid, commonly ingested from animal products, is the precursor of pro-inflammatory mediators, while EPA and DHA inhibit arachidonic acid metabolism and increase production of anti-inflammatory mediators. These mediators, known as eicosanoids, have opposing activity. Western diets are increasing in omega-6 fatty acids leading to an imbalance of omega-6 to omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), which leads to an overproduction of the pro-inflammatory eicosanoids. Increased consumption of omega-3 PUFAs helps reestablish a proper omega-3: omega-6 ratio.
In this article, I will describe some of the newest research on omega-3 fatty acids and explain the many ways they are involved in achieving optimal health.
The omega-3 fatty acids have been investigated in numerous nervous system and mood disorders. Six of seven clinical trials indicate that EPA significantly improves depressive symptoms.1 Studies have also shown that higher arachidonic acid and arachidonic acid/EPA ratios are associated with greater depression symptoms.2 A small study examined the effect of EPA/DHA supplementation in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). The results showed significant improvement in behaviors including inattention, hyperactivity, oppositional/defiant behavior, and conduct disorder.3
Neurodegenerative disorders have been associated with low omega-3 intake and low DHA levels. Research has demonstrated that DHA levels are significantly lower in patients with Alzheimer’s disease, and serum DHA levels progressively decreased relative to the severity of dementia.4 Additionally, the Framingham Heart Study showed that individuals with the highest plasma phosphatidylcholine DHA had a 47 percent lower risk of developing dementia than did those with the lowest DHA levels.5
Research indicates that long-chain omega-3 PUFAs improve insulin resistance. In a dietary intervention study, four energy-restricted diets of identical macronutrient composition but different omega-3 content were prescribed to young overweight individuals. The results indicated that fish oil intake was linked to healthier fasting insulin levels and reduced insulin resistance.6
Type 1 diabetes is an autoimmune disease typically with childhood onset. A study with children at increased risk for type 1 diabetes evaluated intake of omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids in association with the development of autoimmunity to pancreatic islet cells as seen in type 1 diabetes. The researchers concluded that dietary intake of omega-3 fatty acids is associated with reduced risk of islet autoimmunity in children who are at increased risk for developing type 1 diabetes.7
Epidemiological studies have shown a reduced incidence of cancer in populations consuming high levels of dietary fish. Research indicates that omega-3 PUFAs exhibit regulatory effects on cell proliferation and apoptosis (programmed cell death), decrease blood supply to tumors (anti-angiogenic), decrease the spread of tumors (anti-metastatic), and may help sensitize tumors to different chemotherapeutic drugs.8
Omega-3 fatty acids have been shown to increase weight and appetite, improve quality of life, and reduce post-surgical morbidity in cancer patients.9 Some studies suggest that omega-3s exhibit anti-tumor activity, while omega-6s may stimulate the development of cancers.10 In fact, red blood cell (RBC) fatty acid concentrations were measured in women with breast cancer and showed that increased total omega-3 fatty acids and EPA is associated with significantly lower risk of breast cancer, supporting a protective effect of omega-3 PUFAs on breast cancer risk.11
The anti-inflammatory effects of fish oil supplementation have been widely studied with positive results for several chronic inflammatory diseases such as asthma, arthritis, and colitis. C-reactive protein (CRP) is a protein that increases dramatically during inflammatory processes and is commonly measured as a marker of inflammation. Greater intake of omega-3 PUFAs is related to a lower prevalence of elevated CRP levels.12
Neptune Krill Oil (NKO®) has exhibited strong CRP-lowering action. Made from Antarctic krill (Euphausia superba), a shrimp-like zooplankton crustacean, NKO is a rich source of the omega-3 fatty acids EPA and DHA which are linked to phospholipids instead of triglycerides, as in fish oils. Phospholipids are important for numerous physiological functions and increase the absorption of the omega-3 fatty acids,13 thus increasing their bioavailability. Neptune Krill Oil also contains high levels of a potent antioxidant called astaxanthin, as well as vitamins A and E.
In one clinical trial, patients with increased levels of CRP with a diagnosis of cardiovascular disease, rheumatoid arthritis, and/or osteoarthritis were given Neptune Krill Oil at 300 mg daily or placebo. After 7 days of treatment with NKO, CRP was reduced by 19.3 percent. After 14 days, the CRP decreased by 29.7 percent, and after 30 days of treatment, CRP decreased by 30.9 percent. Additionally, after 7 days of treatment, NKO reduced pain scores by 28.9 percent, reduced stiffness by 20.3 percent, and reduced functional impairment by 22.8 percent. These results indicate that NKO significantly inhibits inflammation and reduces arthritic symptoms.14
Animal models of colitis indicate that fish oil decreases colonic damage and inflammation, weight loss, and mortality. Fish oil supplementation in patients with inflammatory bowel diseases have shown to modulate levels of inflammatory mediators,15 and may be beneficial for the induction and maintenance of remission in ulcerative colitis.16
Researchers have correlated that certain dietary habits such as low intake of fish products, omega-3 PUFAs, and a low omega-3/omega-6 ratio is associated with menstrual pain, which is mediated by inflammatory eicosanoids.17 One study evaluated the effect of supplementation with omega-3 PUFAs in adolescents with painful menses. The results showed that treatment with fish oil effectively reduced painful menstrual symptoms.18 Another study evaluated women with premenstrual syndrome and painful menses, supplementing with either NKO or omega-3 fish oil for 3 months. The results demonstrated that both groups had a significant improvement in symptoms and significant reduction of the number of analgesics used for painful menstruation compared to initial evaluation. However, women taking NKO consumed significantly fewer analgesics than women receiving omega-3 fish oil. NKO was also superior at reducing the emotional symptoms associated with PMS.19 In addition, studies suggest that fish oil supplementation has a positive effect on bone metabolism and might be a possible intervention to slow the loss of bone frequently observed following menopause.20
Researchers have investigated omega-3s effects in other inflammatory conditions. One study examined the levels of omega-3s in RBCs to examine the difference between children with atopy (atopic dermatitis, allergic rhinitis, or asthma) and without. Total RBC fatty acid composition showed that total omega-3s were lower, while omega-6 and omega-6/omega-3 ratios were greater in children with atopy compared to controls.21 In another study, gamma-linolenic acid (GLA) and EPA was supplemented in a group of atopic patients with mild-to-moderate asthma. Asthma questionnaire scores improved and rescue bronchodilator medication use decreased, suggesting that PUFA supplementation can improve patient quality of life and decrease reliance on rescue medication.22
In the management of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and other inflammatory conditions, side effects limit the use of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). A clinical trial showed that 39 percent of patients with RA supplemented with cod liver oil were able to reduce their daily NSAID requirement by greater than 30 percent.23
Omega-3 fatty acids have exhibited beneficial effects on heart health and have been studied in cardiovascular conditions such as arrhythmias, atherosclerosis, inflammation, and thrombosis. There is also evidence that they lower blood pressure and triglycerides.24 Moderately elevated triglycerides are common and are a risk factor for coronary heart disease. Numerous studies indicate that omega-3 supplementation is effective in reducing triglycerides by approximately 30 percent in patients with moderate hypertriglyceridemia (triglycerides 150-500 mg/dl).25 In patients with triglyceride levels above 500 mg/dl, approximately 4 grams/day of EPA and DHA reduces triglyceride levels by 45 percent.26 Omega-3s have been shown to significantly lower the risk of mortality in patients surviving a recent heart attack,27 and omega-3 supplementation in patients taking statin drugs reduced major coronary events by 19 percent compared to statin plus placebo.28
In another study, patients with elevated lipid levels were given NKO. Patients received daily either krill oil at a body-mass-index-dependent dosage of 2-3 grams, 1-1.5 grams krill oil, fish oil, or placebo. Krill oil 1-3 grams per day was found to be effective for the reduction of glucose, total cholesterol, triglycerides, low-density lipoprotein (LDL,) and increasing high-density lipoprotein (HDL), compared to both fish oil and placebo. At lower and equal doses, krill oil was significantly more effective than fish oil for the reduction of triglycerides, glucose, and LDL levels.29
In today’s world, the typical diet has left many individuals in an unbalanced state of high omega-6 intake and low intake of the omega-3 fatty acids EPA and DHA. The medical literature has attributed this imbalance to many of the most common health conditions of our time. EPA and DHA can directly impact inflammatory and immune processes, effectively reducing systemic inflammation. Excessive omega-6 fatty acids, on the other hand, are common in inflammatory disease states. Supplementation with fish oil and/or Neptune Krill Oil can provide the necessary re-balancing of the omega-3: omega-6 ratio that our bodies need to function optimally.
1. Song C, Zhao S. Omega-3 fatty acid eicosapentaenoic acid. A new treatment for psychiatric and neurodegenerative diseases: a review of clinical investigations. Expert Opin Investig Drugs. 2007 Oct;16(10):1627-38.
2. Conklin SM, Manuck SB, Yao JK, et al. High omega-6 and low omega-3 fatty acids are associated with depressive symptoms and neuroticism. Psychosom Med. 2007 Dec;69(9):932-4.
3. Sorgi PJ, Hallowell EM, Hutchins HL, et al. Effects of an open-label pilot study with high-dose EPA/DHA concentrates on plasma phospholipids and behavior in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Nutr J. 2007 Jul 13;6:16.
4. Tully AM, Roche HM, Doyle R, et al. Low serum cholesteryl ester-docosahexaenoic acid levels in Alzheimer’s disease: a case-control study. Br J Nutr. 2003 Apr;89(4):483-9.
5. Schaefer EJ, Bongard V, Beiser AS, et al. Plasma phosphatidylcholine docosahexaenoic acid content and risk of dementia in Alzheimer disease. Arch Neurol. 2006;63:1545–50.
6. Ramel A, Martinéz A, Kiely M, et al. Beneficial effects of long-chain n-3 fatty acids included in an energy-restricted diet on insulin resistance in overweight and obese European young adults. Diabetologia. 2008 Jul;51(7):1261-8.
7. Norris JM, Yin X, Lamb MM, et al. Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid intake and islet autoimmunity in children at increased risk for type 1 diabetes. JAMA. 2007 Sep 26;298(12):1420-8.
8. Calviello G, Serini S, Piccioni E. n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids and the prevention of colorectal cancer: molecular mechanisms involved. Curr Med Chem. 2007;14(29):3059-69.
9. Colomer R, Moreno-Nogueira JM, García-Luna PP, et al. N-3 fatty acids, cancer and cachexia: a systematic review of the literature. Br J Nutr. 2007 May;97(5):823-31.
10. Funahashi H, Satake M, Hasan S, et al. Opposing effects of n-6 and n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids on pancreatic cancer growth. Pancreas. 2008 May;36(4):353-62.
11. Shannon J, King IB, Moshofsky R, et al. Erythrocyte fatty acids and breast cancer risk: a case-control study in Shanghai, China. Am J Clin Nutr. 2007 Apr;85(4):1090-7.
12. Niu K, Hozawa A, Kuriyama S, et al. Dietary long-chain n-3 fatty acids of marine origin and serum C-reactive protein concentrations are associated in a population with a diet rich in marine products. Am J Clin Nutr. 2006 Jul;84(1):223-9.
13. Werner A, Havinga R, Kuipers F, et al. Treatment of EFA deficiency with dietary triglycerides or phospholipids in a murine model of extrahepatic cholestasis. Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol. 2004 May;286(5):G822-32.
14. Deutsch L. Evaluation of the effect of Neptune Krill Oil on chronic inflammation and arthritic symptoms. J Am Coll Nutr. 2007 Feb;26(1):39-48.
15. Calder PC. Polyunsaturated fatty acids, inflammatory processes and inflammatory bowel diseases. Mol Nutr Food Res. 2008 May 26.
16. De Ley M, de Vos R, Hommes DW, et al. Fish oil for induction of remission in ulcerative colitis. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2007 Oct 17;(4):CD005986.
17 Deutch B. Painful menstruation and low intake of n-3 fatty. acids. Ugeskr Laeger. 1996 Jul 15;158(29):4195-8.
18. Harel Z, Biro FM, Kottenhahn RK, et al. Supplementation with omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids in the management of dysmenorrhea in adolescents. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 1996 Apr;174(4):1335-8.
19. Sampalis F, Bunea R, Pelland MF, et al. Evaluation of the effects of Neptune Krill Oil on the management of premenstrual syndrome and dysmenorrhea. Altern Med Rev. 2003 May;8(2):171-9.
20. Matsushita H, Barrios JA, Shea JE, et al. Dietary fish oil results in a greater bone mass and bone formation indices in aged ovariectomized rats. J Bone Miner Metab. 2008;26(3):241-7.
21. Hwang I, Cha A, Lee H, et al. N-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids and atopy in Korean preschoolers. Lipids. 2007 Apr;42(4):345-9.
22. Surette ME, Stull D, Lindemann J. The impact of a medical food containing gammalinolenic and eicosapentaenoic acids on asthma management and the quality of life of adult asthma patients. Curr Med Res Opin. 2008 Feb;24(2):559-67.
23. Galarraga B, Ho M, Youssef HM, et al. Cod liver oil (n-3 fatty acids) as an non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug sparing agent in rheumatoid arthritis. Rheumatology (Oxford). 2008 May;47(5):665-9.
24. Schwalfenberg G. Omega-3 fatty acids: their beneficial role in cardiovascular health. Can Fam Physician. 2006 Jun;52:734-40.
25. Skulas-Ray AC, West SG, Davidson MH, et al. Omega-3 fatty acid concentrates in the treatment of moderate hypertriglyceridemia. Expert Opin Pharmacother. 2008 May;9(7):1237-48.
26. McKenney JM, Sica D. Role of prescription omega-3 fatty acids in the treatment of hypertriglyceridemia. Pharmacotherapy. 2007 May;27(5):715-28.
27. Anon. Dietary supplementation with n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids and vitamin E after myocardial infarction: results of the GISSI-Prevenzione trial. Gruppo Italiano per lo Studio della Sopravvivenza nell’Infarto miocardico. Lancet. 1999 Aug 7;354(9177):447-55.
28. Goldberg RB, Sabharwal AK. Fish oil in the treatment of dyslipidemia. Curr Opin Endocrinol Diabetes Obes. 2008 Apr;15(2):167-74.
29. Bunea R, El Farrah K, Deutsch L. Evaluation of the effects of Neptune Krill Oil on the clinical course of hyperlipidemia. Altern Med Rev. 2004 Dec;9(4):420-8.
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